Chloroquine is able to bind to DNA, and inhibit DNA replication and RNA synthesis which in turn results in cell death. The effect of Chloroquine may also be related to the formation of a toxic heme-Chloroquine complex. Symptoms of plaquenil eye toxicity Extinction coefficient chloroquine phosphate Heme is a ferro-proto-porphyrin. Heme = Protoporphyrin IX ring + Iron Fe in center Protoporphyrin IX = porphyrin with attachment to 4 Methyl, 2 Propionyl and 2 Vinyl groups. Porphyrin = Cyclic Chloroquine forms a drug-hemozoin complex, and this complex caps the polymerizing chain, thereby preventing additional polymerization. Along with the prevention of polymerization, the free heme accumulates in the food vacuole, exerting its toxic effects on the parasite. Chloroquine also functions as an anti-autoimmune therapy. Heme polymerase activity is inhibited, resulting in accumulation of cytotoxic-free heme. 4-aminoquinolines. Chloroquine — Chloroquine was the first drug produced on a large scale for treatment and prevention of malaria infection. Chloroquine possesses definite antirheumatic properties. Chloroquine has immuno-modulatory effects, suppressing the production/release of tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 6. Chloroquine inhibits trophozoite hemoglobin degradation through increasing vacuolar p H and inhibiting the activity of vacuolar phospholipase, vacuolar proteases, and heme polymerase. Heme chloroquine complex On the molecular mechanism of chloroquine's antimalarial action PNAS, Chloroquine - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf Plaquenil did not work for meHydroxychloroquine sulphate 200mg side effectsPlaquenil visual field lossHydroxychloroquine and the flu Hemozoin from chloroquine-sensitive or -resistant strains had similar affinities for the chloroquine-heme complex. This adds to the body of evidence suggesting that chloroquine resistance is a result of failure of drug to reach the target site, rather than alteration of the target itself. A Common Mechanism for Blockade of Heme Polymerization by.. UpToDate. Chloroquine Mechanism of drug action and resistance in.. These results indicate that chloroquine may be acting by inhibiting haem detoxification/binding to Pfhrp-2. Moreover, the higher affinity of chloroquine for haem than Pfhrp-2 suggests a possible mechanism of action for chloroquine; it may remove the haem bound to Pfhrp-2 and form a complex that is toxic to the parasite. Anti-malarial action the drugs stabilize the lysosomes of the schizonts and reach a high concentration in the vacuoles → their alkaline nature raises the internal pH → bind to heme to form the heme-chloroquine complex, which is highly toxic to the schizont → the parasite perishes Spin State of Chloroquine-Heme Complexes Formation of a Hemin Tetramer Adduct Article PDF Available in The Open Spectroscopy Journal 21 May 2008 with 78 Reads How we measure 'reads'