Rapid diagnostic assays for Pf CRT mutations are already employed as surveillance tools for drug resistance. Here, we review recent field studies that support the central role of Pf CRT mutations in chloroquine resistance. Hydroxychloroquine 200mg equivalent to methotrexate Plaquenil maculopathy oct Chloroquine injection for malaria treatment Chloroquine phosphate mechanism of action Emergence of resistance to antimalarial drugs has become a major hurdle in the successful treatment of the infection, and has contributed significantly to global malaria-related mortality.1 Till date, drug resistance has been documented in P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae.1 Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine are medications traditionally prescribed to prevent or treat malaria infections. In certain countries and parts of the world where malaria is still present, a person can easily catch malaria from a seemingly insignificant mosquito bite. Chloroquine is an antimalarial drug. Doctors can usually cure people who are infected with the malaria parasite with various drugs, including this one, but sometimes the parasite is immune to a certain drug. In the case of chloroquine resistance, the parasite appears to have evolved in a way that prevents the drug from getting into the parasite. Recognition of the value of chloroquine was delayed, and it was not brought forward until it was reevaluated in the United States and designated the drug of choice against malaria near the end of World War II . These studies suggest chloroquine resistance arose in ⩾4 distinct geographic foci and substantiate an important role of immunity in the outcomes of resistant infections after chloroquine treatment. Investigation of the resistance mechanisms and of the role of immunity in therapeutic outcomes will support new approaches to drugs that can take the place of chloroquine or augment its efficiency Early in the 20th century, intense demands for an effective quinine substitute launched the discovery and evaluation of a series of organic compounds (beginning with methylene blue), which led to pamaquine and quinacrine after World War I and ultimately produced chloroquine in 1934 [1, 2]. History of chloroquine resistance Compare Plaquenil vs Chloroquine -, What Is the Difference between Hydroxychloroquine and. Plaquenil for pericarditisChloroquine phosp hat e Chloroquine Research by German scientists to discover a substitute for quinine led to the synthesis in 1934 of Resochin chloroquine and Sontochin 3-methyl-chloroquine. These compounds belonged to a new class of antimalarials, the four-amino quinolines. History of antimalarials Medicines for Malaria Venture. What Is Chloroquine Resistance? with picture. Chloroquine - Wikipedia. Causes of resistance 12 3.1 Definition of antimalarial drug resistance 12 3.2 Malaria treatment failure 12 3.3 Mechanisms of antimalarial resistance 12 3.3.1 Chloroquine resistance 12 3.3.2 Antifolate combination drugs 13 3.3.3 Atovaquone 13 3.4 Factors contributing to the spread of resistance 13 3.4.1 Biological influences on resistance 13 A closer look at the genesis of chloroquine resistance along the Thailand–Cambodia border, which became ground zero for the emergence of chloroquine resistance in the 1950s and 1960s, reveals a. Sep 15, 2001 The fact that chloroquine resistance took many years to develop in a limited number of foci contrasts with observations that resistance to another widely used antimalarial, pyrimethamine, arose rapidly on many independent occasions.