There has been considerable debate about the relationship between epilepsy and cancer, in particular whether the incidence of cancer is increased in people with epilepsy and whether antiepileptic drugs promote or protect against cancer. We review available evidence from animal experiments, genotoxicity studies and clinico-epidemiological observations, and discuss proposed mechanisms underlying the association between epilepsy and cancer. A carcinoma-promoting effect has been seen unequivocally in rodent models for phenobarbital and phenytoin; phenobarbital promoted liver tumours and phenytoin caused lymphoid cell and liver tumours in rats. Early human epidemiological studies found an association between phenobarbital and hepatocellular carcinoma, and several subsequent studies suggested an association with lung cancer. An association with brain tumours has also been demonstrated. Phenytoin has been causally implicated in three human cancers: lymphoma, myeloma and neuroblastoma, the latter specifically in the setting of foetal hydantoin syndrome. However, despite considerable long-term pharmaco-epidemiological data being available for both antiepileptic drugs, evidence for human carcinogenicity is not consistent and both are considered only possibly carcinogenic to humans. If you are a woman who has epilepsy, there are some important things you should know before using birth control or planning a pregnancy. Any birth control that is safe for women, in general, is safe for women with epilepsy. However, having epilepsy -- and some treatments for the condition -- can make some forms of birth control less effective. Also, because anti-seizure medications for epilepsy can increase the risk of birth defects, it's important to plan pregnancy carefully. If you have epilepsy and take anti-seizure drugs, your birth control options could include hormones such as birth control pills or Depo-Provera injections, barrier methods like condoms or a diaphragm, or an intrauterine device (IUD). Natural family planning such as the rhythm method -- abstaining on your fertile days -- can also be used, although this method may not be as reliable as others. If you are taking anti-seizure medications, some of these drugs can interact with some hormonal types of birth control and make them less effective. In one case, hormonal birth control may reduce the blood levels of Lamictal (lamotrigine), an anti-seizure drug, making it less effective.
Orapred ODT (Prednisolone sodium phosphate disintegrating tablets) is a sodium salt of the phosphoester of the glucocorticoid prednisolone. It is indicated in the treatment of the atopic dermatitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dosage of Orapred ODT should be individualized according to the severity of the disease and the response of the patient. It is indicated for the treatment of invasive fungal infections caused by invasive aspergillosis. The initial dose of Orapred ODT may vary from 10 to 60 mg (prednisolone base) per day, depending on the specific disease entity being treated. The recommended daily dosage for adults and children is 5 mg/kg given as a single infusion. Fluid retention, alteration in glucose tolerance, elevation in blood pressure, behavioral and mood changes, increased appetite and weight gain are commonly reported side effects of Orapred. The active ingredient of Abelcet is Amphotericin B. Abelcet should be administered by intravenous infusion at a rate of 2.5 mg/kg/h. It is also available under the following trade names: Amphotec (a powder for injection), and Ambisome (a liposomal form). If the infusion time exceeds 2 hours, mix the contents by shaking the infusion bag every 2 hours. Patients should be pretreated with antipyretics, antihistamines, antiemetics and with Meperidine to reduce the signs and symptoms of shaking chills and fever. Search or browse the over 2,300 drug guides by drug name to view trusted, reliable drug guides written for the patient and available on demand. PDR for Patients combines the benefits, as well as the safety information for the drugs chosen, helping patients understand why they are taking the medication and the benefits of adhering to their regimen. View or print the information you need when you need it.
More than one million women and girls in the United States are living with seizure disorders. They face many challenges, from changes during the monthly cycle which may trigger seizures to concerns regarding pregnancy. Mercedes Jacobson from the Temple Epilepsy Center as she discusses the ways in which seizures impact women through the different stages of life as it relates to hormones. Social factors leave them vulnerable to discrimination and abuse. Yet their plight and the manner in which they are affected has been largely ignored. As an important part of the Epilepsy Foundation Eastern PA’s role in advocating for all people with epilepsy, we are committed to addressing the unique health concerns of women with epilepsy. Antiepileptic drugs known to induce the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isoenzyme cause decreased sex hormone levels in women taking oral contraceptives, raising the potential for decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives and increased risk of unplanned pregnancy. WEAVER, Ph D, MD, Waco Family Medicine Residency Program, Waco, Texas ELIZABETH TWEED, BSN, MLIS, University of Colorado Health Science Center, Denver, Colorado Clinical Commentary by LISA EDGERTON, Pharm D, CPP, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, North Carolina Am Fam Physician. We found no studies that measure, or even estimate, any increase in pregnancy rates in women taking antiepileptic drugs. (Strength of Recommendation [SOR]: C, based on small cohort studies). Antiepileptic drugs that do not induce this hepatic isoenzyme are not thought to compromise the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. (SOR: C, based on small cohort studies and randomized controlled trials). Antiepileptic drugs are being used more often for problems such as migraine headaches, chronic pain syndromes, and bipolar disorder. If antiepileptic drugs negatively affect oral contraceptive effectiveness, the potential for contraceptive failures increases as more women take antiepileptic drugs and oral contraceptives concurrently. Clinical Inquiries provides answers to questions submitted by practicing family physicians to the Family Physicians Inquiries Network (FPIN).
Imagine the incessant, grating sound of buzzing in your ears -- or constant beeping, whistling, dripping, or clicking. Imagine the chatter of crickets or birds resonating in your head all day long. PDR+ Patient Drug Information written by clinical pharmacists from the Physicians’ Desk Reference PDR. This patient-friendly drug information is designed to help patients be adherent to prescribed medications by improving patient understanding of appropriate use of their medication the benefits, management of side effects and by helping make their medication more affordable through a.